Composition of coal components

The flammable gas produced by the decomposition of organic matter in coal under certain temperature and conditions is called "volatile matter". It is a mixed gas composed of various hydrocarbons, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and other compounds. Volatile matter is also the main coal quality index. Volatile matter has an important reference role in determining the processing and utilization of coal and process conditions. Coal with a low degree of coalification has more volatiles. If the combustion conditions are not suitable, the coal with high volatile content will easily produce unburned carbon particles, commonly known as "black smoke"; and produce more carbon monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes and other pollutants, and the thermal efficiency is reduced. Therefore, it is necessary to select appropriate combustion conditions and equipment based on the volatile matter of the coal.

The elements that make up the organic matter of coal are mainly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. In addition, there are extremely small amounts of elements such as phosphorus , fluorine, chlorine, and arsenic . Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are the main bodies of coal organic matter, accounting for more than 95%; the deeper the degree of coalification, the higher the carbon content, the lower the content of hydrogen and oxygen. Carbon and hydrogen are elements that generate heat during the combustion of coal, and oxygen is a combustion-supporting element. When coal is burned, nitrogen does not generate heat, and is converted into nitrogen oxides and ammonia at a high temperature to precipitate in a free state. Sulfur, phosphorus, fluorine, chlorine and arsenic are harmful components in coal, of which sulfur is the most important. When most of the coal combustion the sulfur is oxidized to sulfur dioxide (SO2), with the flue gas emissions, atmospheric pollution, harm animal and plant growth and human health, metal corrosion apparatus; when sulfur-containing coal for metallurgical coke , and also affects coke quality of steel. Therefore, the "sulfur" content is one of the important indicators for evaluating coal quality.

"Ace" is the solid residue left after the complete combustion of coal carbon, which is an important indicator of coal quality. Ash is mainly derived from incombustible minerals in coal. Minerals should absorb heat when ashing, and a large amount of slag should take away heat. Therefore, the higher the ash, the lower the thermal efficiency of coal combustion. The more ash, the more ash generated by coal combustion, the more fly ash is discharged. . In general, the ash content of high quality coal and clean coal is relatively low.

“Moisture” has a great impact on the processing and utilization of coal. When the water turns into steam, it absorbs heat, thus reducing the calorific value of the coal. The moisture in coal can be divided into external moisture and internal moisture, and the internal moisture is generally used as an indicator for evaluating coal quality. The lower the degree of coalification, the larger the internal surface area of ​​coal and the higher the moisture content.

The content of inorganic substances in coal is very small, mainly including water and minerals, and their presence reduces the quality and utilization value of coal. Minerals are the main impurities of coal, such as sulfides, sulfates, carbonates, etc., most of which are harmful components.

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